Aims and Scope

The Open AIDS Journal is an Open Access journal, which publishes peer reviewed research articles, reviews/mini-reviews and letters in the diverse field of HIV/AIDS. The journal covers recent studies on experimental, clinical, translational, social, epidemiological and behavioral aspects, along with therapeutics, pathogenesis, vaccines, drug resistance, prevention of HIV/AIDS, and search for diagnostics, cure and virology of HIV/AIDS. Original articles on animal models for AIDS treatment research are also included.

The Open AIDS Journal is an important and reliable source of current information on important developments in the field. Emphasis is placed on publishing quality papers, making them freely available to researchers worldwide.

Recent Articles

Editor's Choice

High Prevalence of Lower Extremity Medial Arterial Calcification in HIV-infected Patients With and Without Chronic Renal Disease: A Vascular Ultrasound Cross-sectional Study

Klaudija Višković, Annibale Marinelli, Katrin Nedeljko, Petra Povalej Bržan, Nikolina Bogdanić, Josip Begovac


The association between HIV infection and increased risk of atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been documented. Still, the relationship between HIV infection and lower extremity medial arterial calcification (MAC) is unknown.


We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the frequency of MAC diagnosed by vascular ultrasound in PAD-asymptomatic people living with HIV (PLWH) with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared to HIV-uninfected participants as a control group.


MAC was defined as smooth, linear, and non-stenotic hyperechogenicity in the arterial wall compared to the surrounding tissues. We studied 191 patients: 50 PLWH (25 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2 and 25 with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2) and 141 HIV-uninfected patients (68 with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73m2).


MAC was most frequently found in PLWH with CKD (76%). The prevalence of MAC among PLWH was 54.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.4-67.0%), whereas, in HIV-uninfected, it was 34.0% (95% CI, 26.7-42.2%, P=0.013). Age and CKD were consistently associated with MAC in our multivariable models, and there was also a sign that PLWH had higher odds of having MAC.


We found a higher prevalence of MAC in PAD-asymptomatic PLWH compared to HIV-uninfected ones and provided evidence that HIV infection could be associated with MAC.

January 16, 2023

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