Aims and Scope
Attitudes Toward Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nursing Faculty in Six CountriesJuan. M. Leyva-Moral, Karen A. Dominguez-Cancino, Joan E. Edwards, David Moriña-Soler, Sandra K. Cesario, Genesis M. Guevara-Vasquez, Maria Feijoo-Cid, Patrick A. Palmieri
Since the earliest study about nursing faculty and student attitudes about caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in 1992, there have been less than 20 additional studies reported in the literature. Yet, PLHIV continues to report stigma and experience discrimination. Nursing faculty attitudes are part of the informal curriculum. Negativity about caring for PLHIV can adversely impact student perceptions as well as their care. Current research in this area is essentially non-existent.
To describe the attitudes of the university nursing faculty toward caring for PLHIV; and to identify the relationship between faculty attitudes and explanatory factors such as age, education, religion, nationality, teaching in a clinical setting, years of experience, and university attributes.
This was a multicenter cross-sectional study with nonrandomized electronic purposeful sampling. The Healthcare Provider HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale (HPASS) is a 30-item scale with three subscales: Prejudice, stereotype, and discrimination. The English and Spanish versions of the HPASS exhibit stable psychometric properties for cross-cultural research. The HPASS was delivered to university nursing faculty in six countries across three continents.
A sample of 368 nursing faculty completed the HPASS. The mean composite score was 2.41 (SD = 0.69), six-point scale with lower scores indicating more positive attitudes, with subscale scores: Stereotypes 2.55 (SD = 0.84), discrimination 2.28 (SD = 0.74), and prejudices 2.41 (SD = 0.63). Peruvian faculty had the highest scores while Canadian had the lowest. Significant correlations were observed between attitudes and the three subscales, and between the three subscales and the composite score.
Attitudes of the nursing faculty toward caring for PLHIV were slightly positive to slightly negative depending on the region and country. Knowledge deficiencies about HIV persist, incorrect beliefs are common, and attitudes appear to be influenced by culture. The correlation between subscales justifies continued research to implement targeted interventions. Education about HIV/AIDS can address knowledge deficits while structured interactions with PLHIV can facilitate experiential learning.
October 20, 2020
- September 18, 2020
- May 23, 2020
- May 23, 2020
- April 20, 2020
- March 20, 2020
- February 18, 2020
Immunologic Restoration of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy in Ethiopia: The Focus of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Co-MorbiditiesTsegaye Melaku, Girma Mamo, Legese Chelkeba, Tesfahun Chanie
The life expectancy of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has dramatically improved with the much-increased access to antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, a larger number of people living with HIV are living longer and facing the increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This study assessed the effect of chronic non-communicable disease(s) and co-morbidities on the immunologic restoration of HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
A nested case-control study was conducted among people living with HIV at Jimma University Medical Center from February 20 to August 20, 2016. Cases were HIV infected patients living with chronic non-communicable diseases and controls were people living with HIV only. Patient-specific data were collected using a structured data collection tool to identify relevant information. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with outcome. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05. A patient's written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study.
A total of 240 participants (120 cases and 120 controls) were included in the analysis. Prevalence of hypertension was 12.50%, and diabetes was 10.84%. About 10.42% of study participants were living with multi-morbidity. At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of cases was 42.32±10.69 years, whereas it was 38.41±8.23 years among controls. The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 184.50 cells/µL (IQR: 98.50 - 284.00 cells/µL) for cases and 177.0 cells/µL (IQR: 103.75 - 257.25 cells/µL) for controls. Post-6-months of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation, about 29.17% of cases and 16.67% of controls had poor immunologic restoration. An average increase of CD4+ cell count was 6.4cells/µL per month among cases and 7.6 cells/µL per month among controls. Male sex [AOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.496 to 8.24; p=0.004], smoking history [AOR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.072, to 7.342; p=0.036] and co-morbidity with chronic non-communicable disease(s) [AOR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.604 to 9.916; p=0.003)] were independent predictors of poor immunologic restoration.
Chronic non-communicable disease(s) have negative effects on the kinetics of CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy. So the integration of chronic non-communicable disease-HIV collaborative activities will strengthen battle to control the double burden of chronic illnesses.
May 31, 2019