Aims and Scope
Challenges to Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Coping Strategies to Overcome Them: Qualitative Investigations of Adolescents Living with HIV, their Caregivers, and Clinicians in VietnamLora L. Sabin, Vu Cong Nguyen, Kelsee Harvey, Rachael Bonawitz, Le Thanh Hai, Nguyen Van Lam, Le Thi Yen, Allen L. Gifford, Jessica E. Haberer, Dang Thuy Linh, Mary Bachman DeSilva
Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) in Vietnam are known to struggle with adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).
To examine treatment challenges and facilitators experienced by ALHIV from the perspective of adolescents, their caregivers, and providers, and to inform an adherence intervention.
In-depth Interviews (IDIs) of adolescent/caregiver dyads and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with adolescents, caregivers, and clinicians were conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam. We used semi-structured guides to encourage open-ended responses. We queried the challenges adolescents experience taking ART medications and being adherent, their awareness of disease status, and facilitators to support high adherence. Audio-recorded IDIs were translated into English, and coded and analyzed in NVivo using a thematic approach.
A total of 78 individuals participated in the study. Forty individuals participated in IDIs (20 adolescents and 20 caregivers). All adolescents had acquired HIV perinatally. We conducted six FGDs: four with adolescents, and one each with caregivers and clinicians. We identified major themes regarding awareness of HIV status (most caregivers reported they had disclosed to their child, while few adolescents revealed the knowledge of their status); perceived barriers to adherence (medication-related challenges, stigma, school-associated issues, financial obstacles, system challenges, awareness of HIV status); and adherence facilitators (development of dose-taking habits, reminder systems, social support). Differences between adolescents and caregivers related to key issues were evident.
Further research is needed to elucidate discrepancies in adolescent-caregiver viewpoints and develop interventions tailored to both ALHIV and their caregivers.
December 23, 2020
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Immunologic Restoration of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy in Ethiopia: The Focus of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Co-MorbiditiesTsegaye Melaku, Girma Mamo, Legese Chelkeba, Tesfahun Chanie
The life expectancy of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has dramatically improved with the much-increased access to antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, a larger number of people living with HIV are living longer and facing the increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This study assessed the effect of chronic non-communicable disease(s) and co-morbidities on the immunologic restoration of HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
A nested case-control study was conducted among people living with HIV at Jimma University Medical Center from February 20 to August 20, 2016. Cases were HIV infected patients living with chronic non-communicable diseases and controls were people living with HIV only. Patient-specific data were collected using a structured data collection tool to identify relevant information. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with outcome. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05. A patient's written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study.
A total of 240 participants (120 cases and 120 controls) were included in the analysis. Prevalence of hypertension was 12.50%, and diabetes was 10.84%. About 10.42% of study participants were living with multi-morbidity. At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of cases was 42.32±10.69 years, whereas it was 38.41±8.23 years among controls. The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 184.50 cells/µL (IQR: 98.50 - 284.00 cells/µL) for cases and 177.0 cells/µL (IQR: 103.75 - 257.25 cells/µL) for controls. Post-6-months of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation, about 29.17% of cases and 16.67% of controls had poor immunologic restoration. An average increase of CD4+ cell count was 6.4cells/µL per month among cases and 7.6 cells/µL per month among controls. Male sex [AOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.496 to 8.24; p=0.004], smoking history [AOR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.072, to 7.342; p=0.036] and co-morbidity with chronic non-communicable disease(s) [AOR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.604 to 9.916; p=0.003)] were independent predictors of poor immunologic restoration.
Chronic non-communicable disease(s) have negative effects on the kinetics of CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy. So the integration of chronic non-communicable disease-HIV collaborative activities will strengthen battle to control the double burden of chronic illnesses.
May 31, 2019