Aims and Scope
Assessment of the Effect of HAART on Renal Function of HIV Patients Attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital, CameroonAchu C. A. Nforbugwe, Acha E. Asongalem, Bihnwi R. Nchotu, Elvis A. Tanue, Frankline S. Wirsiy, Nguedia J. C. Assob
Management of HIV involves a life-long administration of a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs, some of which have been known for their nephrotoxicity. Despite the increasing access to this combination therapy, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) information on its renal effect is still scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of HAART on the renal function of HIV-infected patients attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital, Cameroon.
This was a comparative hospital-based cross-sectional study involving HIV positive and negative individuals who visited the Day clinic of the Bamenda Regional Hospital during the study period. Spectrophotometry was used to quantify the renal markers. Glomerular Filtration Rate was determined by the 24 hours creatinine clearance method. Blood urea nitrogen was calculated from serum urea concentrations. Renal impairment was then classified according to the National Kidney Foundation clinical practice guideline. Data were analysed on SPSS version 21 using Student t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation. The level of significance was set at p<0.05.
A total of 201 participants were enrolled in this study, of which 144(71.6%) were females. Their ages ranged between 22 to 60 years with a mean age of 37.4 ± 9.6 years. The participants were divided into 3 study groups; HIV negative, HAART-naïve and the HAART experienced groups. The HAART experienced group had a significantly higher mean BUN and BUN-Creatinine ratio (p= 0.001 and 0.003 respectively) as well as the least creatinine clearance (p= 0.017) when compared to the other groups meanwhile the HAART-naive group had a significantly higher mean urine protein (p= 0.026) when compared to the other two categories. There was no association between renal dysfunction and the HAART regimen as well as adherence to treatment.
This study demonstrated that though the participants on HAART had decreased renal function, the mean Creatinine clearance was not statistically different from that of the participants not yet on HAART. this is indicative that the decreased renal function could be as a result of the devastating effect of HIV. It further demonstrates no association between decreased renal function to the type of HAART regimen used, duration on HAART as well as the patient’s adherence to treatment.
February 18, 2020
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- May 23, 2020
Immunologic Restoration of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy in Ethiopia: The Focus of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Co-MorbiditiesTsegaye Melaku, Girma Mamo, Legese Chelkeba, Tesfahun Chanie
The life expectancy of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has dramatically improved with the much-increased access to antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, a larger number of people living with HIV are living longer and facing the increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This study assessed the effect of chronic non-communicable disease(s) and co-morbidities on the immunologic restoration of HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
A nested case-control study was conducted among people living with HIV at Jimma University Medical Center from February 20 to August 20, 2016. Cases were HIV infected patients living with chronic non-communicable diseases and controls were people living with HIV only. Patient-specific data were collected using a structured data collection tool to identify relevant information. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0. Logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with outcome. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05. A patient's written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study.
A total of 240 participants (120 cases and 120 controls) were included in the analysis. Prevalence of hypertension was 12.50%, and diabetes was 10.84%. About 10.42% of study participants were living with multi-morbidity. At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of cases was 42.32±10.69 years, whereas it was 38.41±8.23 years among controls. The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 184.50 cells/µL (IQR: 98.50 - 284.00 cells/µL) for cases and 177.0 cells/µL (IQR: 103.75 - 257.25 cells/µL) for controls. Post-6-months of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation, about 29.17% of cases and 16.67% of controls had poor immunologic restoration. An average increase of CD4+ cell count was 6.4cells/µL per month among cases and 7.6 cells/µL per month among controls. Male sex [AOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.496 to 8.24; p=0.004], smoking history [AOR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.072, to 7.342; p=0.036] and co-morbidity with chronic non-communicable disease(s) [AOR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.604 to 9.916; p=0.003)] were independent predictors of poor immunologic restoration.
Chronic non-communicable disease(s) have negative effects on the kinetics of CD4+ cell count among HIV-infected patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy. So the integration of chronic non-communicable disease-HIV collaborative activities will strengthen battle to control the double burden of chronic illnesses.
May 31, 2019