Epidemiology and Management of Antiretroviral-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

Daniel B Chastain 1, Harold Henderson 2, Kayla R Stover*, 2, 3
1 Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, Department of Pharmacy, Albany, GA, USA
2 University of Mississippi Medical Center, Department of Medicine-Infectious Diseases, Jackson, MS, USA
3 University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Jackson, MS, USA

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© Chastain et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA; Tel: 601-984-2615; Fax: 601-984-2751; E-mail:


Risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will continue to evolve as improved treatments and life expectancy of these patients increases. Although initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been shown to reduce this risk, some ARV medications may induce metabolic abnormalities, further compounding the risk of CVD. In this patient population, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies should be employed to treat and reduce further risk of CVD. This review summarizes epidemiology data of the risk factors and development of CVD in HIV and provides recommendations to manage CVD in HIV-infected patients.

Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, cardiovascular disease, drug interactions, HIV, hyperlipidemia, hypertension.