Comparison of Rates of Death Having any Death-Certificate Mention of Heart, Kidney, or Liver Disease Among Persons Diagnosed with HIV Infection with those in the General US Population, 2009-2011

Y. Omar Whiteside*, 1, Richard Selik 1, Qian An 1, Taoying Huang 2, Debra Karch 1, Angela L Hernandez 1, H. Irene Hall1
1 HIV Incidence and Case Surveillance Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, NCHHSTP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
2 ICF International, USA

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© Whiteside et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the HIV Incidence and Case Surveillance Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, NCHHSTP, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mail Stop E-47, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; Tel: (404) 639-4980; Fax: (404) 639-8046; E-mail:


Objective :

Compare age-adjusted rates of death due to liver, kidney, and heart diseases during 2009-2011 among US residents diagnosed with HIV infection with those in the general population.

Methods :

Numerators were numbers of records of multiple-cause mortality data from the national vital statistics system with an ICD-10 code for the disease of interest (any mention, not necessarily the underlying cause), divided into those 1) with and 2) without an additional code for HIV infection. Denominators were 1) estimates of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection from national HIV surveillance system data and 2) general population estimates from the US Census Bureau. We compared age-adjusted rates overall (unstratified by sex, race/ethnicity, or region of residence) and stratified by demographic group.

Results :

Overall, compared with the general population, persons diagnosed with HIV infection had higher age-adjusted rates of death reported with hepatitis B (rate ratio [RR]=42.6; 95% CI: 34.7-50.7), hepatitis C (RR=19.4; 95% CI: 18.1-20.8), liver disease excluding hepatitis B or C (RR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.3), kidney disease (RR=2.4; 95% CI: 2.2-2.6), and cardiomyopathy (RR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3), but lower rates of death reported with ischemic heart disease (RR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.6-0.7) and heart failure (RR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9). However, the differences in rates of death reported with the heart diseases were insignificant in some demographic groups.

Conclusion :

Persons with HIV infection have a higher risk of death with liver and kidney diseases reported as causes than the general population.

Keywords: Cause of death, HIV infection, heart disease, liver disease, kidney disease, mortality..