Treatment-Emergent Mutations and Resistance in HIV-Infected Children Treated with Fosamprenavir-Containing Antiretroviral Regimens
Lisa L Ross*, 1, Mark F Cotton 2, Haseena Cassim 3, Eugeny Voronin 4, Naomi Givens 5, Jorg Sievers 5, Katharine Y Cheng 5, For the APV29005 & APV20002 Pediatric Study Groups
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2015
First Page: 38
Last Page: 44
Publisher ID: TOAIDJ-9-38
Article History:Received Date: 19/12/2014
Revision Received Date: 23/3/2015
Acceptance Date: 27/3/2015
Electronic publication date: 15/5/2015
Collection year: 2015
open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
Treatment-emergent mutations and drug resistance were analyzed in virus from HIV-infected children meeting virologic failure (VF) criteria over 48 weeks following treatment with unboosted fosamprenavir or fosamprenavir/ritonavir-containing regimens in studies APV20002 and APV29005. Both antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and ART-experienced patients were enrolled. Patients met VF criteria by either failing to suppress HIV-RNA to <400 copies/mL through week 24 or after confirmed viral rebound (≥400 copies/mL) anytime through week 48. Viral isolates were analyzed for treatment-emergent mutations or reduced drug susceptibility. Through week 48, 25/109 (23%) of APV29005 and 9/54 (17%) APV20002 study patients met VF. VF was more common in ART-experienced patients (68% and 78%, respectively). Major or minor treatment-emergent mutations were detected at VF in virus from 3 patients receiving unboosted fosamprenavir-containing regimens and in virus from 10 patients receiving fosamprenavir/ritonavir-containing regimens across the two studies. Major protease inhibitor mutations and the reverse transcriptase mutation M184V were detected at VF in virus from 4 and 5 patients, respectively, across both studies. Reduced drug susceptibility to any drug emerged in virus from 9 patients at VF, although reduced fosamprenavir susceptibility emerged in virus from only 4 patients (2 ART-naïve and 2 ART-experienced). No cross-resistance to the protease inhibitor darunavir was observed.
In conclusion, given the high proportion of ART-experienced children (71%) in these two studies, the overall incidence of children meeting VF criteria through 48 weeks was relatively low (21%) and development of fosamprenavir reduced drug susceptibility at VF was uncommon, further supporting the use of fosamprenavir-containing ART regimens in HIV-infected children.