Meta-Analysis of The Prevalence of Genital Infections Among Hiv Carriers and Uninfected Women

Ana Paula Ferreira Costa1, #, *, Marcos Gonzaga dos Santos2, #, Ayane Cristine Alves Sarmento3, Pedro Henrique Alcântara da Silva4, Guilherme Maranhão Chaves3, Janaina Cristiana de Oliveira Crispim2, Ana Katherine Gonçalves4, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci5
1 Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil
2 Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Science, Federal University of Rio Grande Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil
3 Department of Clinical Analysis and Toxicology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil
4 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN, Brazil
5 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Potiguar University, UnP- Natal, Brazil

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© 2018 Costa et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Rua Gal Gustavo C Farias, SN, Faculdade de Farmácia. Bairro: Petropólis, 59012 570 - Natal, RN, Brazil, Tel: +5584996391560; E-mail:

# These authors contributed equally to this work


Background & Aim:

The risk factors in acquiring genital co-infections associated with HIV infection still present many questions. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the prevalence of genital infection among HIV-infected and uninfected women.


We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo for the relevant studies up until October 2017. Data were collected from the included studies and methodologically assessed. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled using fixed or random-effects models.


Thirty-six articles involving 23,863 women with retroviruses were included. HIV-infected women were significantly more diagnosed with the following genital infections: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (OR 3.70; 95% CI: 2.42–5.65), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) (OR 4.18; 95% CI: 2.15-8.13), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (OR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.20-4.23) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) (OR 3.99, 95% CI: 3.35-4.75). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 0.91-1.30), Candida sp. (OR 1.51; 95% CI: 0.71-3.25), Treponema pallidum (OR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.00-2.45) and Trichomonas vaginalis (OR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.47-2.15).


The prevalence of HPV, HSV-2, GC and CT genital infection was significantly higher among HIV-positive women.

Keywords: HIV, Microbiota, Reproductive Tract Infections, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Genital Infections, Uninfacted Women.