SYSTEMATIC REVIEW


Barriers and Facilitators to HIV/AIDS Testing among Latin Immigrant Men who have Sex with Men (MSM): A Systematic Review of the Literature



Aiala Xavier Felipe da Cruz1, Roberta Berté2, Aranucha de Brito Lima Oliveira2, Layze Braz de Oliveira3, João Cruz Neto4, Agostinho Antônio Cruz Araújo3, Anderson Reis de Sousa5, Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes3, Inês Fronteira6, Álvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa7, *
1 Centro Universitário Uninovafapi, Piauí, Brazil
2 Fundação Municipal da Saúde de Teresina, Teresina, Brazil
3 Ribeirão Preto Nursing School, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil
4 Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira, Redenção, Ceará, Brasil
5 Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
6 Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
7 Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Hospital Sírio-Libânes São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal


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Creative Commons License
© 2023 Felipe da Cruz et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Hospital Sírio-Libânes São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, São Paulo 01308-050, São Paulo, Brazil, Portugal; E-mail: sousa.alvaromd@gmail.com


Abstract

Objective:

This study aims to identify barriers and facilitators of HIV/AIDS testing among Latin American immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM).

Methods:

A systematic literature review was conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE via the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed portal; Web of Science (WoS); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Scopus; and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS).

Results:

Twelve studies were eligible. Overall, the studies indicated that Latin American immigrant MSM have low HIV testing rates. This low testing rate can be influenced by various factors, including knowledge and awareness about HIV; stigma, discrimination, and confidence in health services; barriers to accessing healthcare; type of partnerships and relationships; lack of knowledge about their rights; migration and documentation status; and personal, cultural, and religious beliefs

Conclusion:

Public health interventions aimed at increasing HIV testing among Latin immigrants should directly address the fundamental reasons for not getting tested. This approach is likely to be more successful by taking into account the specific needs and circumstances of Latin immigrant men who have sex with men.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, Testing, Prevalence, Immigrants, International migrants, Global health.