Determinants of the Discriminatory Behavior Experienced by People Living with HIV in Indonesia: A Cross-sectional Study of the Demographic Health Survey

Nursalam Nursalam1, *, Tintin Sukartini1, Hidayat Arifin1, Rifky Octavia Pradipta1, Dluha Mafula1, Masunatul Ubudiyah1
1 Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

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© 2021 Nursalam et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Advanced Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C, Mulyorejo, Surabaya, Indonesia; Tel: (031) 5913257, 5913754; Fax: (031) 5913257; E-mail:



The discriminatory behavior experienced by People Living With HIV (PLWH) remains an unresolved problem in Indonesia. The aims of this research were to determine the factors associated with the discriminatory behavior experienced by PLWH in Indonesia.


This study used cross-sectional design data by processing secondary data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS) conducted in 2017. The total sample in this study was 15,413 records obtained via the two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The variables in this study were knowledge, information, socioeconomic and demographic details and the discriminatory behavior experienced by PLWH. The instrument refers to IDHS 2017. The data were analyzed using a chi-squared test and multinomial logistic regression.


The results obtained show that approximately 78.87% of respondents exhibited discriminatory behavior against PLWH in Indonesia. Respondents who had more knowledge about HIV [RRR: 25.35; CI: 2.85, 225.18] and who had earnings [RRR: 2.15; CI: 1.18, 3.92] were more at risk of discriminatory behavior than others. Respondents who lived in a rural area were less likely to engage in discriminatory behavior against PLWH than those who lived in urban areas [RRR: 0.51; CI: 0.29, 0.91].


An increased understanding of HIV-AIDS and Indonesian people's acceptance of PLWH can occur through the provision of accurate information that is designed to prevent discriminatory behavior against PLWH. The government can consider this problem and further related policies so that PLWH can coexist in society and enjoy the same rights as those living without discrimination.

Keywords: AIDS, Behavior, Demographic health survey, Discriminatory, HIV, Negative prejudice.