Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection



Daniel B. Chastain1, 2, *, S. Travis King3, Kayla R. Stover3
1 Department of Pharmacy, Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, 417 3rd Avenue W, Albany, GA, USA
2 Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Albany, GA, USA
3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, USA


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© Chastain et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacy, Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, 417, 3rd Avenue, W Albany, GA 31706, USA; Tel: (229) 312-0138, Fax: (229) 312-0111; E-mail: dchastain@ppmh.org


Abstract

Background:

Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression.

Methods:

Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion.

Results:

A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients.

Conclusion:

In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Antiretroviral therapy, Cardiovascular disease, Infectious diseases, Opportunistic infections.