Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

Daniel B. Chastain1, 2, *, S. Travis King3, Kayla R. Stover3
1 Department of Pharmacy, Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, 417 3rd Avenue W, Albany, GA, USA
2 Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, Albany, GA, USA
3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, USA

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 4664
Abstract HTML Views: 2512
PDF Downloads: 809
ePub Downloads: 629
Total Views/Downloads: 8614
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2699
Abstract HTML Views: 1428
PDF Downloads: 576
ePub Downloads: 434
Total Views/Downloads: 5137

Creative Commons License
© Chastain et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacy, Phoebe Putney Memorial Hospital, 417, 3rd Avenue, W Albany, GA 31706, USA; Tel: (229) 312-0138, Fax: (229) 312-0111; E-mail:



Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression.


Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion.


A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients.


In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Antiretroviral therapy, Cardiovascular disease, Infectious diseases, Opportunistic infections.