Factors Associated with Uptake of HIV Test Results in a Nationally Representative Population-Based AIDS Indicator Survey

Mary Mwangi*, 1, Timothy A. Kellogg2, Sufia S. Dadabhai3, Rebecca Bunnell1, Godfrey Baltazar4, Carol Ngare4, George K’Opiyo5, Margaret Mburu1, Andrea A. Kim1, 6
1 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya
2 San Francisco Department of Public Health, California, USA
3 John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
4 National AIDS/STD Control Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
5 Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
6 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA

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© Mwangi et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, Mbagathi Way, P.O. Box 606 00621Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254 2 722 203718; Fax: +254 20 271 4745; E-mail:


Population-based surveys with HIV testing in settings with low testing coverage provide opportunities for participants to learn their HIV status. Survey participants (15-64 years) in a 2007 nationally representative population-based HIV serologic survey in Kenya received a voucher to collect HIV test results at health facilities 6 weeks after blood draw. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of individual and couple collection of results. Of 15,853 adults consenting to blood draw, 7,222 (46.7%) collected HIV test results (46.5% men, 46.8% women). A third (39.5%) of HIV-infected adults who were unaware of their infection and 48.2% of those who had never been tested learned their HIV status during KAIS. Individual collection of HIV results was associated with older age, with the highest odds among adults aged 60-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.1); rural residence (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.2-2.6); and residence outside Nairobi, with the highest odds in the sparsely populated North Eastern province (AOR 8.0, 95%CI 2.9-21.8). Of 2,685 married/cohabiting couples, 18.5% collected results as a couple. Couples in Eastern province and in the second and middle wealth quintiles were more likely to collect results than those in Nairobi (AOR 3.2, 95%CI 1.1-9.4) and the lowest wealth quintile (second AOR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.3; middle AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3, respectively. Many participants including those living with HIV learned their HIV status in KAIS. Future surveys need to address low uptake of results among youth, urban residents, couples and those with undiagnosed HIV infection.

Keywords: : AIDS indicator survey, HIV, HIV test results, Kenya, population-based..