Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: A National Population-Based Survey

Tom Oluoch*, 1, Ibrahim Mohammed2, Rebecca Bunnell1, Reinhard Kaiser1, Andrea A Kim3, Anthony Gichangi1, Mary Mwangi1, Sufia Dadabhai4, Lawrence Marum3, Alloys Orago5, Jonathan Mermin6Author Comment: for the 2007 KAIS Study Group

1 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Nairobi, Kenya
2 National AIDS and STI Control Program, Ministry of Medical Services, Nairobi, Kenya
3 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
4 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Nairobi, Kenya
5 National AIDS Control Council, Nairobi, Kenya
6 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, USA

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© Oluoch et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Global HIV/AIDS, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, P.O. Box 606, 00621, Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254 20 286 7000; Fax: +254 20 271 4745; E-mail:



To identify factors associated with prevalent HIV in a national HIV survey in Kenya.


The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral factors and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in adults aged 15-64 years. We analyzed questionnaire and blood testing data to identify significant correlates of HIV infection among sexually active adults.


Of 10,957 eligible women and 8,883 men, we interviewed 10,239 (93%) women and 7,731 (87%) men. We collected blood specimens from 9,049 women and 6,804 men of which 6,447 women and 5,112 men were sexually active during the 12 months prior to the survey. HIV prevalence among sexually active adults was 7.4%. Factors independently associated with HIV among women were region (Nyanza vs Nairobi: adjusted OR [AOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.3), number of lifetime sex partners (6-9 vs 0-1 partners: AOR 3.0, 95%CI 1.6-5.9), HSV-2 (AOR 6.5, 95%CI 4.9-8.8), marital status (widowed vs never married: AOR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5-4.8) and consistent condom use with last sex partner (AOR 2.3, 95%CI 1.6-3.4). Among men, correlates of HIV infection were 30-to-39-year-old age group (AOR 5.2, 95%CI 2.6-10.5), number of lifetime sex partners (10+ vs 0-1 partners, AOR 3.5, 95%CI 1.4-9.0), HSV-2 (AOR 4.7, 95%CI 3.2-6.8), syphilis (AOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.4-4.0), consistent condom use with last sex partner (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and lack of circumcision (AOR 4.0, 95%CI 2.8 - 5.5).


Kenya’s heterogeneous epidemic will require regional and gender-specific prevention approaches.

Keywords: AIDS Indicator Survey, HIV, HIV prevalence, Kenya, Nyanza, Population-based, Sexually transmitted infection..