Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in HIV-Positive Populations in the Asian Region

Rimke Bijker1, *, Jun Yong Choi2, Rossana Ditangco3, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul4, Man Po Lee5, Sarawut Siwamogsatham6, 7, Sanjay Pujari8, Jeremy Ross9, Chi-yuen Wong5, Wing-Wai Wong10, Evy Yunihastuti11, Matthew Law1
1 The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
2 Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3 Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines
4 Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
5 Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong
6 King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
7 Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
8 Institute of Infectious Diseases, Pune, India
9 TREAT Asia, Bangkok, Thailand
10 Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
11 Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

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© 2017 Bijker et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Wallace Wurth Building, UNSW Sydney NSW 2052, Australia; Tel: +61293850900; Fax: +61293850920; E-mail:



Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are becoming more prevalent in HIV-infected populations as they age largely due to improved treatment outcomes. Assessment of CVD risk and CVD risk factors in HIV-positive populations has focused on high income settings, while there are limited studies evaluating CVD in HIV-positive populations in the Asian region.

Materials and Methods:

We provided an overview of the prevalence and incidence of CVD and its risk factors in adult HIV-positive populations, and of the strategies currently in place for CVD management in the Asian region.


Studies from the Asian region showed that CVD and CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, elevated blood glucose, obesity and smoking, are highly prevalent in HIV-positive populations. A number of studies suggested that HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy may contribute to increased CVD risk. National HIV treatment guidelines provide some directions regarding CVD risk prevention and management in the HIV-infected population, however, they are limited in number and scope.


Development and consolidation of guidelines for integrated CVD and HIV care are essential to control the burden of CVD in HIV-positive populations. To inform guidelines, policies and practice in the Asian region, research should focus on exploring appropriate CVD risk screening strategies and estimating current and future CVD mortality and morbidity rates.

Keywords: HIV, Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular risk factors, Asia.