Clinical Outcomes of Tenofovir Versus Zidovudine-based Regimens Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: a Two Years Retrospective Cohort Study



Teshale Ayele*, 1, Habtemu Jarso2, Girma Mamo3
1 Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-aman, Ethiopia
2 Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
3 Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia


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© Ayele et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-aman, Ethiopia; Tel: +251913144738; E-mail: tesh.ayu2016@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

Tenofovir (TDF) based regimen is one of the first line agents that has been utilized routinely since 2013 in Ethiopia. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the Clinical outcomes and associated risk factors in this setting, where patients generally present late, have high rates of TB and other infectious conditions.

Methods:

A two year retrospective cohort study was conducted from February 10/2015 to March 10/2015 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. A total of 280 records were reviewed by including data from September 3, 2012 to July 31, 2014. Records were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected on socio-demographic, clinical and drug related variables. Data was analyzed using STATA 13.1. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were used to compare survival experience and identify independent predictors. Propensity score matching analysis was conducted to elucidate the average treatment effects of each regimen over opportunistic infections.

Results:

Of 280 patients, 183(65.36%) were females and 93(33.32%) of females belong to Tenofovir group. Through 24 months analysis, TDF based regimen had a protective effect against death and opportunistic infections (OIs), (AHR=0.79, 95% CI [0.24, 2.62]) and (AHR=0.78, 95%CI [0.43, 1.4] respectively. The average treatment effect of TDF/3TC/EFV was (-71/1000, p=0.026), while it was (+114/1000, p=0.049) for AZT/3TC/EFV. However, TDF/3TC/NVP was associated with statistically insignificant morbidity reduction (-74/1000, p=0.377). Those with body mass-index (BMI) <18.5kg/m2 (AHR=3.21, 95%CI [0.93, 11.97]) had higher hazard of death. Absence of baseline prophylaxis (AHR=8.22, 95% CI [1.7, 39.77]), Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis alone (AHR=6.15, 95% CI [1.47, 26.67]) and BMI<18.5kg/m2 (AHR=2.06, 95% CI [1.14, 3.73]) had higher hazards of OIs.

Conclusion:

The survival benefit of TDF based regimen was similar to AZT based regimen and therefore can be used as an alternative for HIV/AIDS patients in resource limited setups. However, since this study was not dealt with toxicity of the regimens, we recommend to conduct high quality design on this issue.

Keywords: Jimma University Specialize hospital, Tenofovir regimen, Treatment outcomes, Zidovudine regimen.