Anxiety and Depression Disorder among Adult People Living with HIV/AIDS on Follow-up at Dessie Public Health Facilities Antiretroviral Therapy Clinics, Northeast Ethiopia: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study

Fatuma Seid Degu1 , * Open Modal Authors Info & Affiliations
The Open AIDS Journal 07 Nov 2023 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/0118746136250239231025074541



Anxiety and depression are the most prevalent mental disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS compared to people without HIV/AIDS. In addition, mental health problems are associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS due to adverse effects, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, quality of life, and all health-related parameters. There is no additional study on multiple sites as an integrated way to address the proposed issue.


This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders and their associated factors among adult HIV-/AIDS patients on follow-up at antiretroviral therapy clinics in the Dessie town public health facility, Northeast Ethiopia.


A multicenter institutional-based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Anxiety and depression disorders were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). EPI-Data software version 7.2 for data entry and SPSS version 23 for statistical analysis were used. Statistical significance was declared at a p-value of <0.05 and an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in the final model.


In this study, 404 adult HIV/-AIDS patients presenting for a follow-up at antiretroviral therapy clinics at Dessie town public health facilities participated; the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders was found to be 31.7% (CI: 27%, 36.6%) and 38% (CI: 33.7%, 42.7%), respectively. Being female (AOR=3.5 95% CI: 1.86 –6.65), viral loads ≥ 1000 copies/ml (AOR =2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.95), and CD4 cells <200 cells/mm3 were associated with depressive disorder and HAART containing efavirenz (2.3 95% CI: 1-4.58), consumption of coffee and tea (AOR =2.5, 95% CI; 1.45 -4.37) and female gender (AOR= 3.5 95% CI; 1.9-6.6), which were found to be predictors for anxiety disorders.

Conclusion and Recommendations:

The magnitude of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS on follow-up with antiretroviral therapy was found to be higher than the pooled estimated prevalence found in Ethiopia. Being female, viral load ≥ 1000 copies/ml, and CD4 cells <200 cells/mm3 were associated with the occurrence of depressive disorders, and a HAART regimen containing efavirenz, taking coffee and tea, and female sex were found to be predictors for anxiety disorder.

Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, HIV/AIDS, Antiretroviral therapy clinics, Mental disorders, AOR.
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