Incidence Rate and Time to Occurrence of Renal Impairment and Chronic Kidney Disease among Thai HIV-infected Adults with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Use

The Open AIDS Journal 18 Oct 2021 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874613602115010073



Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a major antiretroviral therapy for Thai human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults. TDF is associated with a decrease in renal function. There is limited data about the use of TDF with the incidence and time to renal impairment and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Thai HIV-infected adults.


To study the association of TDF with the incidence rate and duration of renal impairment and CKD in Thai patients.


A retrospective cohort study in Thai naïve HIV-infected adults was conducted to compare the incidence rate and time to renal impairment and CKD in TDF and non-TDF groups. The incidence rate was analyzed by person-time. Time to renal impairment and CKD were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests.


A total of 1,400 patients were enrolled. The incidence rates of renal impairment in TDF and non-TDF groups were 27.66/1,000 and 5.54/1,000 person-years. The rate ratio was 4.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66–9.35). The incidence rates of CKD in both groups were not significantly different. Themean difference of eGFR between the TDF and non-TDF groups was 1.92 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.022). Time to onset of renal impairment between the TDF and non-TDF groups was found to differ by approximately 20 months.


The incidence rate of renal impairment was about five times higher in the TDF group. A rapid decline of eGFR occurred in the first 2–3 years of treatment. Therefore, the renal function of HIV-infected patients should be monitored so that the severity of renal impairment could be evaluated and CKD could be prevented.

Keywords: HIV infection, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Antiretroviral therapy, Renal impairment, Chronic kidney disease, Liver disease.
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