RESEARCH ARTICLE


Detection of Early Sero-Conversion HIV Infection Using the INSTITM HIV-1 Antibody Point-of-Care Test



Darrel Cook 1, Mark Gilbert 1, 2, Lillo DiFrancesco1, Mel Krajden*, 1, 2
1 British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada
2 Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2194 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada


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© Cook et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada; Tel: 604-707-2421; Fax: 604-707-2420; E-mail mel.krajden@bccdc.ca


Abstract

We compared the INSTITM HIV-1 Antibody Point-of-Care (POC) Test to laboratory-based tests for detection of early sero-conversion (i.e. acute) HIV infections. Fifty-three (53) individuals with early HIV infection, (i.e. 3rd generation anti-HIV EIA non-reactive or reactive, HIV-1 Western Blot non-reactive or indeterminate and HIV-1 p24 antigen reactive) were tested by INSTITM. The INSTITM test was reactive for 34/49 (sensitivity 69.4%; 95% confidence interval 54.6-81.8%) early-infected individuals whose laboratory-based 3rd generation HIV EIA test was reactive. Four (4) were non-reactive by both the laboratory-based EIA and INSTITM tests, but were p24 antigen reactive. The INSTITM POC test performs well compared with other POC tests for the detection of early sero-conversion HIV infection, but it may miss 20% to 30% of those detected by laboratory-based 3rd generation anti-HIV tests. Both POC and laboratory-based anti-HIV tests will fail to detect a proportion of infected individuals in the first weeks after infection.

Keywords: HIV rapid tests, point of care, early sero-conversion, primary HIV infection..